Mangrove Mangrove forest in Everglades National Park, FL Mangroves are woody halophytes that form intertidal forests and provide many important ecosystem services including coastal protection, nursery grounds for coastal fish and crustaceans, forest products, recreation, nutrient filtration and carbon sequestration.
[11] Because they grow at the intersection between land and sea, they have semi-terrestrial and marine components, including unique adaptations including aerial roots, viviparous embryos, and highly efficient nutrient retention mechanisms.
[9] Currently they are found in 123 countries, with 73 identified species.
[12] Mangroves cover approximately 150,000 km2 worldwide, but have declined by 20% in the last 25 years, mainly due to coastal development and land conversion. Mangrove deforestation is slowing, from 1.04% loss per year in the 1980s to 0.
[10] They grow along coastlines in subtropical and tropical waters, depending mainly on temperature, but also vary with precipitation, tides, waves and water flow.


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